Risk Factors for Diabetes

  • Age ≥ 45 years
  • Overweight or obese: body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 (≥ 23 kg/m2 for Asian Americans)2 or waist circumference in men > 40 inches (102 cm) or in women > 35 inches (88 cm)3
  • Member of a high risk population: African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Alaska Native, Asian American, Pacific Islander
  • Family history of diabetes (e.g., parent or sibling)
  • History of gestational diabetes or giving birth to a baby weighing > 9 lbs
  • Physical inactivity
  • Hypertension ≥ 140/90 mmHg, or on therapy for hypertension
  • High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level < 35mg/dl (0.90 mmol/L)
  • Fasting triglyceride (TG) level > 250 mg/dL (2.82 mmol/L)
  • Other conditions associated with insulin resistance (acanthosis nigricans, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, polycystic ovary syndrome)
  • Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
  • Treatment with atypical antipsychotics or glucocorticoids

The Diabetes Risk Test is a quick and easy tool for assessing risk for type 2 diabetes.

Laboratory tests to ascertain the blood glucose level of at-risk patients should be repeated every 1–3 years. Women with a history of gestational diabetes should be screened 6–12 weeks postpartum and every year thereafter if prediabetes is diagnosed, or every 3 years thereafter if the postpartum test is normal.1